Especies de caballito de mar (Syngnathidae, Hippocampus) de México: Estado de conservación y oportunidades futuras

Seahorse species (Syngnathidae, Hippocampus) present in Mexico: Overview of their conservation and future opportunities

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22370/rbmo.2023.58.2.4209

Palabras clave:

Hippocampus, conservación, comercio de vida silvestre, México

Resumen

Los caballitos de mar (género Hippocampus Rafinesque, 1810) son un grupo de peces óseos distribuidos en aguas marinas cálidas y templadas alrededor del mundo. Actualmente se encuentran bajo presión antropogénica derivada de la destrucción y modificación del hábitat, así como por su explotación comercial para fines alimenticios, medicinales (sobre todo en Asia) y de acuacultura, lo que ha llevado a una disminución drástica de las poblaciones silvestres. En México, se encuentran distribuidas cuatro especies de caballitos de mar (H. erectus, H. ingens, H. reidi, H. zosterae), sin embargo, aún se desconocen varios aspectos biológicos-ecológicos. A pesar de estar protegidas por normatividad nacional e internacional, las poblaciones en vida libre se ven afectadas por la pesca incidental (principalmente por la industria camaronera y de escama) y pesca furtiva. La presente revisión describe información referente a parámetros biológicos, poblacionales, aprovechamiento, comercialización y usos de las cuatro especies de Hippocampus presentes en México. La finalidad última es consignar las bases para futuros programas de conservación enfocados en estos peces.

Biografía del autor/a

Miroslava Quiñónez-Martínez, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

Autor corresponsal: mquinone@uacj.mx

Citas

Alford K & C Grist. 2005. Dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae. In: Koldewey H (ed). Syngnathid husbandry in public aquaria, pp. 88-90. Seahorse Project, Zoological Society of London, London.

Ambo-Rappe R, YA La Nafie, AA Marimba & RK Unsworth. 2021. Seagrass habitat characteristics of seahorses in Selayar Island, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation 14(1): 337-348.

Anderson PA. 2012. Sexual dimorphism in morphometry and allometry of the adult lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Copeia 2012(3): 389-393.

Aylesworth LA, JH Xavier, TPR Oliveira, GD Tenorio, AF Diniz & IL Rosa. 2015. Regional-scale patterns of habitat preference for the seahorse Hippocampus reidi in the tropical estuarine environment. Aquatic Ecology 49(4): 499-512.

Baum JK & ACJ Vincent. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environmental Conservancy 32: 305-319.

Baum JK, JJ Meeuwig & ACJ Vincent. 2003. Bycatch of lined seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) in a Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl fishery. Fishery Bulletin 101: 721-731.

Becerril‐García EE, D Petatan‐Ramírez, I Ortiz‐Aguirre & A Ayala‐Bocos. 2018. First record of the Pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens in Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Journal of Fish Biology 92(4): 1207-1210.

Branco JO, F Freitas & ML Christoffersen. 2015. Bycatch fauna of seabob shrimp trawl fisheries from Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Biota Neotropica 15(2): e20140143. <https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032015014314>

Bruckner AW, JD Field & N Daves. 2005. The proceedings of the international workshop on CITES implementation for seahorse Conservation and trade. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-36: 1-171.

Carlson JK, CS Horn, KL Smith & DM Bethea. 2019. Population viability analysis of the dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae, in Florida. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFSSEFSC- SEFSC-739: 1-37.

Castro ALDC, ADF Diniz, IZ Martins, AL Vendel, TPRD Oliveira & IMDL Rosa. 2008. Assessing diet composition of seahorses in the wild using a non destructive method: Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) as a study-case. Neotropical Ichthyology 6(4): 637-644.

Chen L, X Wang & B Huang. 2015. The genus Hippocampus - a review on traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 162: 104-111. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.032>

Chipana-Robles S & S Valle-Rubio. 2021. Estadios, proporción sexual y talla de captura de Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858 (Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae) a partir de una muestra incautada en Perú. The Biologist, Lima 19(2): 175-185.

Cohen FP, WC Valenti, M Planas & R Calado. 2017. Seahorse aquaculture, biology and conservation: knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture 25(1): 100-111.

de la Nuez-Hernández D, LP Gutiérrez, AP Angulo, YP Cubero & RIC Wong. 2016. Fidelidad al sitio y rango de hogar del caballito de mar narizón Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) en la dársena de Varadero, noroeste de Cuba. Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 8(1): 95-112.

Encomendero E, J Merino, A Vásquez & F del Rosario-Azañero. 2016. Fecundidad, supervivencia y crecimiento del caballito de mar Hippocampus ingens (Pisces: Syngnathidae), en condiciones de laboratorio. Pueblo Continente 22(1): 159-165.

Felbab-Brown V. 2022. La caza furtiva y el tráfico de vida silvestre ligados a China en México, 44 pp. <https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/FP_20220531_wildlife_trafficking_felbab_brown_SPANISH.pdf>

Felício AKC, IL Rosa, A Souto & RHA Freitas. 2006. Feeding behavior of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Journal of Ethology 24: 219-225. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10164-005-0189-8>

Fernández-Apango JA, NE Narchi, GA Valle-Ramírez-Valle de Arellano, G Gómez-Hernández & D Lubinsky. 2002. Organismos marinos en la medicina popular de México. En: Consejo Mexicano de Investigación y Desarrollo de Productos Naturistas (ed). Memorias del Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Herbolaria, pp. 17-25. Guadalajara.

Foster S. 2008. Case study: Hippocampus spp. Project seahorse, 19 pp. NDF Workshop Case Studies, WG8-Fishes. British Columbia University, Vancouver. <https://cites.org/sites/default/files/ndf_material/WG8-CS4.pdf>

Foster SJ & ACJ Vincent. 2004. Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. Fish Biology 65(1): 1-61.

Foster SJ & ACJ Vincent. 2016. Making non-detriment findings for seahorses - a framework, Version 4, 72 pp. Project Seahorse, The Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries (formerly the Fisheries Centre), The University of British Columbia, Vancouver. <https://projectseahorse.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/NDFframeworkV42016March22.pdf>

Foster SJ, TL Loh & C Knapp. 2014. iSeahorse: Landings Trends Toolkit: Surveying wild seahorse landings in support of conservation. <https://projectseahorse.org/resource/landings-trends-toolkit/>

Freret-Meurer N & JV Andreata. 2008. Field studies of a Brazilian seahorse population, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 51(4): 743-751.

Freret-Meurer N & J Andreata. 2011. First record of Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Pisces, Syngnathidae, Actinopterygii) at 100 meters deep. Revista Brasileira de Zoociencias 13: 109-110.

Garcia LMB, GV Hilomen-Garcia, FT Celino, TT Gonzales & RJ Maliao. 2012. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of the seahorse Hippocampus barbouri reared in illuminated sea cages. Aquaculture 358-359: 1-5. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.06.013>

Gardiner N. 1998. Hippocampus erectus, 55 pp. Undergraduate report, University de Michigan, Michigan.

Gomezjurado J. 2005. Pacific seahorse, Hippocampus ingens. In: Koldewey H (ed). Syngnathid husbandry in public aquaria, pp. 72-74. Seahorse Project, Zoological Society of London, London.

Gutiérrez LP, YP Cubero, RIC Wong & PPC Monteagudo. 2011. Estudio de las poblaciones de caballitos de mar en dos zonas de la costa norte de La Habana y Pinar del Río. Revista de Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 3: 171-181.

Hernández-Roque JA, EI Romero-Berny & JM López-Vila. 2018. Ictiofauna de descarte en la pesca artesanal de camarones (Litopenaeus vannamei y L. stylirostris) en la laguna costera Mar Muerto, Golfo de Tehuantepec, México. Revista de Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 10(2): 51-76.

Hernández-Urcera J, FJ Murillo, M Regueira, M Cabanellas-Reboredo & M Planas. 2021. Preferential habitats prediction in syngnathids using species distribution models. Marine Environmental Research 172: 105488. <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105488>

Herrera-Valdivia E, J López-Martínez, S Castillo-Vargasmachuca & AR García-Juárez. 2016. Diversidad taxonómica y funcional en la comunidad de peces de la pesca de arrastre de camarón en el norte del Golfo de California, México. Revista de Biología Tropical 64(2): 587-602.

Holt WV, A Fazeli & F Otero-Ferrer. 2021. Sperm transport and male pregnancy in seahorses: an unusual model for reproductive science. Animal Reproduction Science 246: 106854. <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2021.106854>

Hora MDSCD & JC Joyeux. 2009. Closing the reproductive cycle: growth of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from birth to adulthood under experimental conditions. Aquaculture 292: 37-41.

INAPESCA. 2016. Evaluación y manejo de la pesquería de camarón del Pacífico Mexicano. Captura, puntos de referencia, biomasa, edad, medio ambiente, fauna de acompañamiento. INAPESCA, Ciudad de México. <https://fisheryprogress.org/sites/default/files/indicators-documents/INAPESCA%202016%20_0.pdf>

IUCN. 2021. Toolkit: CITES for seahorses – general information. <https://www.iucn-seahorse.org/cites-toolkit>

IUCN/SSC. 2013. Directrices para la introducción y otras translocaciones para fines de conservación. Version 1.0., 57 pp. UICN Species Survival Commission, Gland. <https://iucn-ctsg.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/iucn-guidleines-spanish.pdf>

Jiang C, FY Liu, Y Jin, Y Yuan, YY Zhao & LQ Huang. 2018. Zoological origin survey of commercial Hippocampus in Chinese herbal markets by morphological and DNA sequencing identification. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 43(23): 4553-4561.

Jiménez-García GL. 2012. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva y conducta del caballito de mar Hippocampus erectus. Tesis de Maestría, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mérida, 103 pp. <http://132.248.9.195/ptd2012/octubre/0684972/0684972.pdf>

Jones AG & JC Avise. 2001. Mating systems and sexual selection in male-pregnant pipefishes and seahorses: Insights from microsatellite-based studies of maternity. Journal of Heredity 92: 150-158. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/92.2.150>

Kitsos MS, T Tzomos, L Anagnostopoulou & A Koukouras. 2008. Diet composition of the seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 and Hippocampus hippocampus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6): 1259-1267.

Koldewey H. 2005. Seahorse husbandry in public aquariums, 137 pp. Zoological Society of London, London.

Koldewey HJ & KM Martin-Smith. 2010. A global review of seahorse aquaculture. Aquaculture 302: 131-152.

Kvarnemo C, SE Andersson, J Elisson, GI Moore & AG Jones. 2021. Home range use in the West Australian seahorse Hippocampus subelongatus is influenced by sex and partner’s home range but not by body size or paired status. Journal of Ethology 39(2): 235-248.

Lawson JM, SJ Foster & AC Vincent. 2017. Low bycatch rates add up to big numbers for a genus of small fishes. Fisheries 42(1): 19-33.

Li C, M Olave, Y Hou, G Qin, RF Schneider, Z Gao, X Tu, X Wang, F Qi, A Nater, AF Kautt, S Wan, Y Zhang, Y Liu, H Zhang, B Zhang, H Zhang, M Qu, S Liu, Z Chen, J Zhong, H Zhang, L Meng, K Wang, J Yin, L Huang, B Venkatesh, A Meyer, X Lu & Q Lin. 2021. Genome sequences reveal global dispersal routes and suggest convergent genetic adaptations in seahorse evolution. Nature Communications 12(1): 1-11.

Lin Q, J Lin & D Zhang. 2008. Breeding and juvenile culture of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Aquaculture 277: 287-292.

Lin Q, G Li, G Qin, J Lin, L Huang, H Sun & P Feng. 2012. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Biology Open 1(4): 391-396.

Loh TL, C Knapp & SJ Foster. 2014. iSeahorse: Trends toolkit: Finding and surveying wild seahorse populations in support of conservation. <https://projectseahorse.org/resource/iseahorse-trends-toolkit/>

López G. 2019. Análisis de la cría en cautiverio, aprovechamiento y comercio de caballitos de mar (Hippocampus spp.) y oportunidades para fortalecer la implementación de la CITES en México, 62 pp. SNIB-CONABIO, Ciudad de México.

Lourie SA. 2016. Seahorses: A life-size guide to every species, 160 pp. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lourie SA & JE Randall. 2003. A new pygmy seahorse, Hippocampus denise (Teleostei Syngnathidae) from the Indo-Pacific. Zoological Studies 42(2): 284-291.

Lourie SA, JC Pritchard, SP Casey, TS Ky, HJ Hall & ACJ Vincent. 1999. The taxonomy of Vietnam’s exploited seahorses (family Syngnathidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66: 231-256.

Lourie SA, SJ Foster, EWT Cooper & ACJ Vincent. 2004. A guide to the identification of seahorses, 114 pp. Project Seahorse and Traffic North America, University of British Columbia & World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.C.

Lourie SA, RA Pollom & SJ Foster. 2016. A global revision of the Seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for further research. Zootaxa 414: 1-66.

Mai ACG & IML Rosa. 2009. Ecological aspects of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi in the Camurupim/Cardoso estuary, Piauí State, Brazil, as subsidies for the implementation of an Environmental Protection Area. Biota Neotropica 9: 1-7.

Mai ACG & G Velasco. 2012. Population dynamics and reproduction of wild longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 92(2): 421-427.

Martínez A, T Gardner & D Littlehale. 2005. Lines seahorse Hippocampus erectus. In: Koldewey H (ed). Syngnathid husbandry in public aquaria, pp. 54-61. Seahorse Project, Zoological Society of London, London.

Masonjones HD. 2001. The effect of social context and reproductive status on the metabolic rates of dwarf seahorses (Hippocampus zosterae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A 129(2): 541-555.

Masonjones HD & SM Lewis. 1996. Courtship behavior in the dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae. Copeia 1996: 634-640.

Masonjones HD, E Rose, LB McRae & DL Dixson. 2010. An examination of the population dynamics of syngnathid fishes within Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Current Zoology 56(1): 118-133.

Masonjones H, A Hayashida-Boyles & R Pollom. 2017. Hippocampus zosterae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10089A46910143. <http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017- 3.RLTS.T10089A46910143.en>

Masonjones H, E Rose, J Elson, B Roberts & J Curtis-Quick. 2019. High density, early maturing, and morphometrically unique Hippocampus erectus population makes a Bahamian pond a priority site for conservation. Endangered Species Research 39: 35-49.

Matheson RE Jr, DK Camp, SM Sogard & KA Bjrogo. 1999. Changes in seagrass-associated fish and crustacean communities on Florida Bay mud banks: The effects of recent ecosystem changes? Estuaries 22(28): 534-551.

Najera-Medellin JA & A de la Mora-Covarrubias. 2019. Distribución biogeográfica potencial del género Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes) en costas mexicanas. Revista de Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 11: 51-69.

NOAA. 2020. Status review report: dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae), 90 pp. National Marine Fisheries Service NOAA, Silver Spring. <https://media.fisheries.noaa.gov/dam-migration/2017_dwarf_seahorse_status_review_final_508_(1).pdf>

Oakley JW, S Lesher, G Dennis, R Ulibarri & G Guillen. 2021. Distribution, abundance, and habitat use of the Dwarf Seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae, along the Texas Coast, 78 pp. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin. <https://www.uhcl.edu/environmental-institute/research/publications/documents/21-001-dwarf-seahorse-final-report.pdf>

Oliveira TP & R Pollom. 2017. Hippocampus reidi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10082A17025021. <http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T10082A17025021.en>

Oliveira TP, AL Castro & IL Rosa. 2010. Novel sex-related characteristics of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Neotropical Ichthyology 8: 373-378.

Ortega-Salas AA & H Reyes-Bustamante. 2006. Fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens (Pisces: Syngnathidae) under semi-controlled conditions. Revista de Biología Tropical 54(4): 1099-1102.

Ortiz-Aguirre I. 2018. Consideraciones sobre el estado actual de Hippocampus ingens para su aprovechamiento sostenible en la bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Tesis Doctoral, Departamento Académico de Ciencias Marinas y Costeras, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, 74 pp.

Pajaro MG & ACJ Vincent. 2016. The catch and export of the seahorse trade in the Philippines, pre-CITES. Fisheries Centre Working Paper, 2015-102, 27 pp. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Pastor-Gutiérrez L, D de la Nuez-Hernández, RIC Wong, YP Cubero & AP Angulo. 2011. Caracterización de las poblaciones de caballitos de mar en diferentes zonas de la costa norte de las regiones occidental y central de Cuba. Revista de Ciencias Marinas y Costeras 9: 23-29.

Pham N & J Lin. 2013. The effects of different feed enrichments on survivorship and growth of early juvenile longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 44(3): 435-446.

PIECEMO. 2013. Cultivo del caballito de mar Hippocampus erectus, 61 pp. Programa de Investigaciones en Ecología y Cultivo de Especies Marinas de Ornato, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Yucatán.

Pierri C, F Cardone, G Corriero, T Lazic, F Quattrocchi, G Alabiso & M Gristina. 2021. Density decline in a Mediterranean seahorse population: Natural fluctuations or new emerging threats? Frontiers in Marine Science 8: 692068. <https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.692068>

Planas OM. 2014. El caballito de mar, 128 pp. Los Libros de la Catarata, Madrid.

Planas OM, R Burhans & N Simões. 2017. Seahorses and pipefish. In: Calado R, I Olivotto, OM Planas & GJ Holt (eds). Marine ornamental species aquaculture, pp. 299-326. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

Planas OM, I Olivotto, MJ González, R Laurà, C Angeletti, A Amici & M Zarantoniello. 2021. Pre-breeding diets in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi: How do they affect fatty acid profiles, energetic status and histological features in newborn? Frontiers in Marine Science 8: 618. <https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.688058>

Pollom R. 2017a. Hippocampus erectus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10066A20191442. <http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T10066A20191442.en>.

Pollom R. 2017b. Hippocampus ingens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10072A54905720. <http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T10072A54905720.en>

Pollom R, GM Ralph, CM Pollock & ACJ Vincent. 2021. Global extinction risk for seahorses, pipefishes and their near relatives (Syngnathiformes). Oryx 55(4): 497-506. <https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605320000782>

Qin G, Y Zhang, ALFC Ho, Y Zhang & Q Lin. 2017. Seasonal distribution and reproductive strategy of seahorses. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74: 2170-2179.

Rodríguez-Romero J, J López-Martínez, E Herrera-Valdivia, S Hernández-Vázquez & A Acevedo-Cervantes. 2012. Elenco taxonómico de los peces acompañantes de la captura de camarón en la porción oriental del Golfo de California. En: López-Martínez J & E Morales-Bojórquez (eds). Efectos de la pesca de arrastre en el Golfo de California, pp. 71-91. Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C., La Paz. Fundación Produce Sonora, Hermosillo.

Rosa IL, R Alves, K Bonifácio, JS Mourão, FM Osório, TPR Oliveira & MC Nottingham. 2005. Fishers’ knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 1: 12. < https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-12>

Rosa IL, TPR Oliveira, ALC Castro, LE de Souza-Moraes, JHA Xavier, MC Nottingham, TLP Dias, LV Bruto-Costa, ME Araujo, AB Birolo, ACG Mai & C Monteiro-Neto. 2007. Population characteristics, space use and habitat associations of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 5(3): 405-414.

Rose E, CM Small, HA Saucedo, C Harper & AG Jones. 2014. Genetic evidence for monogamy in the dwarf seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae. Journal of Heredity 105(6): 922-927.

Rose R, H Masonjones & A Jones. 2016. A DNA-based assessment of the phylogenetic position of a morphologically distinct, anchialine-lake-restricted seahorse. Journal of Heredity 107(6): 553-558.

Rose E, M Simmonds, AL Hayashida-Boyles & HD Masonjones. 2019. Seasonal and spatial variation in the reproductive biology of the dwarf seahorse Hippocampus zosterae. Journal of Fish Biology 95(2): 357-366.

Schwarz-Junior R, ACNP Franco, ADS Ribeiro, MA Martins, M Soeth, OR Cardoso & HL Spach. 2021. Padrões ecológicos e de crescimento do cavalo-marinho Hippocampus reidi inferidos por técnicas de recaptura em um estuário tropical. Biota Neotropica 21(2). <https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2020-1130>

Sogard SM, GVM Powell & G Holmquist. 1989. Spatial distribution and trends in abundance of fishes residing in seagrass meadows on Florida Bay mudbanks. Bulletin of Marine Science 44(1): 179-199.

Stallings CD, JP Brower, JM Heinlein-Loch & A Mickle. 2014. Commercial trawling in seagrass beds: bycatch and long-term trends in effort of a major shrimp fishery. Marine Ecology Progress Series 513: 143-153.

Stocks AP, SJ Foster, NK Bat, NM Ha & ACJ Vincent. 2019. Local fishers’ knowledge of target and incidental seahorse catch in southern Vietnam. Human Ecology 47(3): 397-408.

Stölting KN & AB Wilson. 2007. Male pregnancy in seahorses and pipefish: beyond the mammalian model. BioEssays 29: 884-896. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.20626>

Strawn K. 1958. Life history of the pigmy seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae Jordan and Gilbert, at Cedar Key, Florida. Copeia 1958: 16-22.

Taylan B, Ş Gürkan & E Taşkavak. 2020. Reproductive biology of the Short-snouted Seahorse, Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae). Zoology in the Middle East 66: 222-223.

Teixeira RL & JA Musick. 2001. Reproduction and food habits of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 61: 79-90.

Ternes ML, LC Gerhardinger & A Schiavetti. 2016. Seahorses in focus: local ecological knowledge of seahorse-watching operators in a tropical estuary. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12(1): 52. <https://ethnobiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13002-016-0125-8>

Tipton K & SS Bell. 1988. Foraging patterns of two syngnathid fishes: importance of harpacticoid copepods. Marine Ecology Progress Series 47: 31-43.

Valladares S, DX Soto & OM Planas. 2016. Dietary composition of endangered seahorses determined by stable isotope analysis. Marine and Freshwater Research 68(5): 831-839.

Vari RP. 1982. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, Part 8. Order Gasterosteiformes, Suborder Syngnathoidea. Syngnathidae (Doryrhamphinae, Syngnathinae, Hippocampinae), 198 pp. Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale University, New Haven.

Vilchis-García IS. 2018. Desarrollo de visualizador web para consulta, georreferenciación y análisis de poblaciones de caballito de mar (Hippocampus erectus) en el Estado de Yucatán. Tesis de especialidad, Facultad de Geografía, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, 73 pp. <http://ri.uaemex.mx/handle/20.500.11799/106209>

Vincent ACJ. 1990. Reproductive ecology of seahorses. Dissertation for Doctor of Philosophy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 101 pp. <https://projectseahorse.org/wp-content/uploads/1990/06/Amanda_Vincent_PhD1990.pdf>

Vincent ACJ, BG Giles, CA Czembor & SJ Foster. 2011a. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1): 2-180.

Vincent ACJ, SJ Foster & HJ Koldewey. 2011b. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78(6): 1681-1724.

Vincent ACJ, YJ Sadoby-de Mitcheson, SL Fowler & S Lieberman. 2013. The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade. Fish and Fisheries 15(4): 563-592.

Vite-Garcı́a N, N Simoes, O Arjona, M Mascaro & E Palacios. 2014. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810) juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 42(1):150-159.

Vite-García N, S López-Jiménez & L Rangel-López. 2017. Avances en el cultivo de Hippocampus spp. (Teleostei: Syngnathidae): investigaciones en el siglo XXI. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 45(1): 1-17.

Willadino L, L Souza-Santos, R Mélo, A Brito, N Barros, C Araújo-Castro, D Galvão, A Gouveia, C Regis & R Cavalli. 2012. Ingestion rate, survival and growth of newly released seahorse Hippocampus reidi fed exclusively on cultured live food items. Aquaculture 360-361: 10-16.

Wilson AB, I Ahnesjo, ACJ Vincent & A Meyer. 2003. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae). Evolution 57: 1374-1386.

Yasué M, A Nellas, H Panes & ACJ Vincent. 2015. Monitoring landed seahorse catch in a changing policy environment. Endangered Species Research 27: 95-111.

Yip MY, ACO Lim, VC Chong, JM Lawson & SJ Foster. 2014. Food and feeding habits of the seahorses Hippocampus spinosissimus and Hippocampus trimaculatus (Malaysia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95(5): 1033-1040.

Zhang X & ACJ Vincent. 2018. Predicting distributions, habitat preferences and associated conservation implications for a genus of rare fishes, seahorses (Hippocampus spp.). Diversity and Distributions 24: 1005-1017.

Zhang D, Y Zhang, J Lin & Q Lin. 2010. Growth and survival of juvenile lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), at different stocking densities. Aquaculture Research 42: 9-13.

Zhang D, F Yin & J Lin. 2011. Criteria for assessing juvenile quality of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Aquaculture 322/323: 255-258.

Descargas

Publicado

2023-12-31

Cómo citar

Nájera-Medellín, J. A., Quiñónez-Martínez, M., Díaz-Gaxiola, J. M., Santos-Fita, D., Narchi, N. E., & Corral-Avitia, A. Y. (2023). Especies de caballito de mar (Syngnathidae, Hippocampus) de México: Estado de conservación y oportunidades futuras: Seahorse species (Syngnathidae, Hippocampus) present in Mexico: Overview of their conservation and future opportunities. Revista De Biología Marina Y Oceanografía, 58(2), 67–84. https://doi.org/10.22370/rbmo.2023.58.2.4209

Número

Sección

Revisión

Artículos similares

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > >> 

También puede {advancedSearchLink} para este artículo.