Naturalizating Morality. From Alethic to Deontic and Axiological Values: The Case of Tocar, a Colombian Spanish Verb

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22370/rhv2022iss20pp77-99

Keywords:

morality, language, cognitive semantics, deontic and axiological modality, Spanish verb “tocar”, periphrasis

Abstract

Great thinkers have devoted to explaining morality and ethics in human beings. The major reflections have resulted in a well-known dichotomy, that of matters of fact and matters of value, or what is known as the theoretical world, which is objective, and the practical world, that of affections. With the birth of analytic philosophy, the emphasis is placed on language allowing to explain philosophical problems, such as validity. This study proposes the following thesis: it is possible to derive “ought” from “is”, as it is evidenced in the Spanish verb “tocar” and several of its verbal periphrasis. To achieve this, a naturalization of morality is proposed from the postulates of two theories, namely, cognitive semantics (Talmy 2000) and the Modular Theory of Modalities (Gosselin 2010). The methodology applied consists of both a semantic and a cognitive analysis of “tocar”, for which a corpus was collected in literary texts and presidential speeches. The main result shows that “tocar” has a prototypical descriptive semantic value, alethic value, and new prescriptive semantic values. It is concluded that the new semantic values for this verb and its periphrasis are the deontic and the axiological ones, which demonstrates once again the evolutionary character of language and the need to provide empirical information on philosophical issues, such as morality.

Author Biographies

Laura Niño Buitrago, Autonoma University of Manizalez

PhD Student at Autonomous University of Manizales

Mercedes Suárez, Autonoma University of Manizalez

Coordinator of the PhD. Program in Cognitive Sciences

References

Austin, John. (1962). How to do things with words. London: Oxford University Press.

Ayoun, Dalila (2013). The Second Language Acquisition of French Tense, Aspect, Mood and Modality, John Benjamins Publishing Company AILA Applied Linguistics Series 10, University of Arizona. https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.10

Bruner, Emiliano (2018). La evolución del cerebro humano. Madrid: Bonalletra Alcompás, S.L.

Celis, Francisco (2005). Diccionario de Colombiano Actual. Bogotá: Intermedio Editores, una división de Círculo de Lectores, S.A.

Churchland, Patricia (2019). El cerebro moral. Lo que la neurociencia nos cuenta sobre la moralidad. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta.

Croft, William (2002). Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cifuentes, P. (2012). La semántica conceptual. En Ibarretxe-Antuñano, I. y Valenzuela, J. (Eds.), Lingüística cognitiva. Barcelona: Anthropos Editorial.

Damasio, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H. (1991). Somatic markers and the guidance of behaviour: theory and preliminary testing. In Levin, Harvey S., Eisenberg, M., Benton, Arthur (Eds.), Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction, pp. 217-229. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Duque, Iván (2020). Alocución presidencial de la República de Colombia. Consultado el 26 de marzo del 2020. Disponible en https://id.presidencia.gov.co/Paginas/prensa/2020/En-poscuarentena-pandemia-COVID-19-preparemonos-enfrentar-convivir-virus-con-mejores-protocolos-Presidente-Duque-200326.aspx

Estany, A. (2022). Naturalización de la ética y la moral. Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso, 19, 293-312. https://doi.org/10.22370/rhv2022iss19pp293-312

Estapà, R. (1989). Quelques considérations du futur en espagnol et en anglais. Barcelona: Université de Barcelone.

Fauconnier, Gilles ([1985] 1994). Mental spaces: aspects of meaning construction in naturallanguages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

García, García (1985). El amor en los tiempos del cólera. Bogotá: Grupo editorial Norma.

Givon, Thomas (1994). Voice and Inversion. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Gosselin, Laurent (2005). Temporalité et modalité. (postface de B. Victorri). Bruxelles: Duculot-de Boeck. https://doi.org/10.3917/dbu.gosse.2005.01

Gosselin, Laurent (2010). La validation des représentations. Les modalités en français. Amsterdam-New York:Rodopi, coll. Etudes Chronos. Doi:9789042027572

Gosselin, L. (2018). Quand nommer c’est juger. Les jugements de valeur internes aux noms d’humains. En C. Schnedecker, W. Mihatsch (Eds.), Les noms d’humains- théorie, méthodologie, classification: Nouvelles approaches en sémantique lexicale, pp. 44-101. Berlin: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110586169

Gosselin, L. (2020). Les modalités dans l’Étranger et l’expression de l’absurde. In E. Corre, Do Hurinville and H-L Dao (Eds.), The expression of Tense, Aspect, Modality and Evidentiality in Albert Camus’s l’Étranger and its translations, pp. 267-281. Amsterdam/Philadelphia. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110586169

Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science, 293, 2105-2108. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1062872

Guadarrama, Pablo (2018). Para qué sirve la epistemología a un investigador y a un profesor. Bogotá: Cooperativa Editorial Magisterio.

Hume, David (1986). A treatise of Human Nature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hutchins, Edwin (1995a). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Jakobson, Roman (1976). Six leçons sur le son et le sens. Paris: Ed. de Minuit, Paris.

Jaramillo, J. (2013). Las teorías descriptivas de la referencia de Strawson y Searle. Dos críticas a las teorías del sinsentido. Discusiones filosóficas, 14(23), 151-177.

Knobe, J. (2010). Action Trees and Moral Judgment. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2, 555-578. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01093.x

Knobe, J. & Gendler, Z. (2013). Modals with a Taste of the Deontic. Semantics & Pragmatics, 6, 1-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.1

Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books.

Moore, G. (1982). Principia Ethica. Barcelona: Editorial Laia.

Ospina, W. (2008). El país de la canela. Bogotá: La otra orilla.

Palmer, F. (1986). Mood and Modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pascual, E. (2012). Los Espacios Mentales y la Integración Conceptual. En I. Ibarretxe-Antañano y J. Valenzuela (Eds.), Lingüística Cognitiva, pp. 147-166. Barcelona: Anthropos Editorial.

Quevedo, C. (2019). Las perífrasis verbales en español: construcciones con el auxiliar Acabar. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Tesis inédita de doctorado.

Real Academia Española (2020). Diccionario de la lengua española. Disponible en https://dle.rae.es/

Restrepo, J., Moreno, L; Fonseca, J., Vera, A., y Quiroz, D. (2021). Razonamiento Moral y Lenguas Extranjeras: Un Estudio Lingüístico-Cognitivo en Profesionales Bilingüe. In N. Loaiza, A. Botero, M. Rolong y M. Zapata (Eds.), Apuestas investigativas por un cambio social, pp. 256-273. Cali: REDIPE. https://editorial.redipe.org/index.php/1/catalog/view/80/147/1803

Restrepo J., Suárez, M. (2021). Linguistic Modalities: A Socio-Cognitive Embodied Ability Present in Theory of Mind and Moral Cognition. In N. Loaiza, A. Botero, M. Rolong y M. Zapata (Eds.), Apuestas investigativas por un cambio social, pp. 274-296. Cali: REDIPE. https://editorial.redipe.org/index.php/1/catalog/view/80/147/1804

Rodríguez, A. (2015). Searle y la posibilidad de derivar un “debe” de un “es”. Escritos, 23(50), 213-229. https://revistas.upb.edu.co/index.php/escritos/article/view/682/514

Rodríguez, A. (2018). Naturaleza Biopragmática de la moral. Lenguaje y mente, condiciones necesarias de la institución moral. Manizales/Medellín: Editorial UAM, Editorial Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.

Rodríguez, A. (2020). Objetividad de los juicios morales. Una revisión desde el pragmatismo lingüístico. Guillermo de Ockham, 18(1), 19-31. https://doi.org/10.21500/22563202.4261

Rorty, R. (1990). El giro lingüístico. Barcelona: Paidós.

Searle, J. R. (1964). How to derive ‘ought’ from ‘is’. Philosophical Review, 73, 43-58. https://doi.org/10.2307/2183201

Talmy, L. (2000). Toward a cognitive semantics. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Victorri, B. (1997). La polysémie : un artefact de la linguistique?. Revue de Sémantique et de Pragmatique, 2, 41-62. https://doi.org/halshs-00009273

Victorri, B. (1999). Le sens grammatical. Langages, 136, 85-105. https://doi.org/10.3406/lgge.1999.2214

Wallach, W. (2010). Cognitive Models of Moral Decision Making. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2, 420-429. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01101.x

Zhang, J. (1997a). Distributed representation as a principle for the analysis of cockpit information displays. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 7, 105-121. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap0702_1

Zhang, J., y Norman, D. (1994). Representations in distributed cognitive tasks. Cognitive Science, 18(1), 87-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/0364-0213(94)90021-3

Downloads

Published

2022-12-01 — Updated on 2022-12-02

How to Cite

Restrepo Rodas, J., Niño Buitrago, L. ., & Suárez, M. . . (2022). Naturalizating Morality. From Alethic to Deontic and Axiological Values: The Case of Tocar, a Colombian Spanish Verb. Revista De Humanidades De Valparaíso, (20), 77–99. https://doi.org/10.22370/rhv2022iss20pp77-99

Issue

Section

Monographic Section

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.