Human Genetics and the Value of Non-epistemic Values for Restituting Identity in Argentine

Livio Mattarollo

Abstract


Within the context of the discussion about value-free science ideal, Heather Douglas claims that in several cases non-epistemic values are needed for good reasoning in science. In this article I aim at recovering her viewpoint in order to examine the research driving to the Genetic Grandparent Inclusion-Probability Index, a crucial element to restitute the identity of children who were abducted during Argentinean dictatorship (1976-1983). Thus, my purposes are (i) to reconstruct Douglas´ main theoretical contributions, specifically her reasons to reject the ideal as well as the distinction between direct and indirect roles for values in science; and (ii) to analyze the scientific paper resulting from the “Grandparent-Inclusion Index” research. The main hypothesis is (iii) that several decisions of this research, particularly the establishment of what is to be considered sufficient evidence, should be explained by reference to social, ethical and political values. Both because of the non-epistemic consequences of the inquiry related to its inductive risk and because such inquiry is a case in which there is legitimate and necessary integration between epistemic and non-epistemic values and that it is also a case in which Douglas’ criteria of objectivity is reached. By virtue of these reasons, the significance of Douglas’ contribution to the analysis of the relationship between science and politics is emphasized.


Keywords


Heather Douglas; inductive risk; objectivity; grandparent inclusion; probability index; human rights

References


Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (2020). Casos Resueltos. Obtenido de: https://www.abuelas.org.ar/caso/buscar?tipo=3. Consulta: 20/06/2020.

Anderson, E. (1995). Knowledge, Human Interests, and Objectivity in Feminist Epistemology. Philosophical Topics, 23(2), 27-58. https://doi.org/10.5840/philtopics199523213

Anderson, E. (2004). Uses of Value Judgments in Science: A General Argument, with Lessons from a Case Study of Feminist Research on Divorce. Hypatia, 19(2), 2-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2004.tb01266.x

Amantze Regueiro, S. (2010). Análisis genético para la identificación de niños apropiados: construcción política y científica de la “naturaleza” y el parentesco. Revista Estudios Feministas, Florianópolis, 18(1), 11-32. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2010000100002

Brown, M. (2013). Values in Science. Beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk. Philosophy of Science, 80(5), 829-839. https://doi.org/10.1086/673720

CONADEP (1984). Informe “Nunca Más”. Buenos Aires: Eudeba.

Daston, L. (1992). Objectivity and the Escape from Perspective. Social Studies of Science, 22, 597-618. https://doi.org/10.1177/030631292022004002

di Lonardo A. M., Darlu P., Baur M., Orrego C., King M. C. (1984). Human Genetics and Human Rights: Identifying the Families of Kidnapped Children. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 5(4), 339-347. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000433-198412000-00011

Dewey, J. (1985). Context and Thought. En Jo Ann Boydston (ed.), The Collected Works of John Dewey, 1882-1953. The Later Works, 1925-1953.Volume 6: 1931-1932. Essays, Reviews, and Miscellany, pp. 3-21. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Douglas, H. (2000). Inductive Risk and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science, 67(4), 559-579. https://doi.org/10.1086/392855

Douglas, H. (2004a). Border Skirmishes Between Science and Policy: Autonomy, Responsibility, and Values. En P. Machamer & G. Wolters (eds.), Science, Values and Objectivity, pp. 220-244. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press.

Douglas, H. (2004b). The Irreducible Complexity of Objectivity. Synthese 138(3), 453-473. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SYNT.0000016451.18182.91

Douglas, H. (2007). Rejecting the Idea of Value-Free Science. En H. Kincaid, J. Dupré, & A. Wylie (eds.), Value-free science? Ideals and Illusions, pp. 120-139. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

Douglas, H. (2009). Science, Policy and the Free-Value Ideal. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt6wrc78

Douglas, H. (2014). The Moral Terrain of Science. Erkenntnis, 79(S5), 961-979. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10670-013-9538-0

Douglas, H. (2016). Values in Science. En P. Humphreys (ed.). The Oxford Handbook in the Philosophy of Science, pp. 609-630. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199368815.013.28

Echeverría, J. (2002). Ciencia y valores. Barcelona: Ediciones Destino.

Elliott, K. (2011). Direct and Indirect Roles for Values in Science. Philosophy of Science, 78(2), 303-324. https://doi.org/10.1086/659222

Elliott, K. (2013). Douglas on Values: From Indirect Roles to Multiple Goals. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 44(3), 375-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsa.2013.06.003

Gómez, R. J. (2014). La dimensión valorativa de las ciencias. Hacia una filosofía política. Bernal: Universidad Nacional de Quilmes.

Hempel, C. G. (1965). Science and Human Values. En Aspects of Scientific Explanation and other Essays in the Philosophy of Science, pp. 81-96. New York: The Free Press.

Hicks, D. J. (2014). A New Direction for Science and Values. Synthese, 191(14), 3271-3295. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-014-0447-9

Kitcher, P. (2001). Science, Truth, and Democracy. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/0195145836.001.0001

Kitcher, P. (2011). Science in a Democratic Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401207355_003

Kourany, J. A. (2010). Philosophy of science after feminism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732623.001.0001

Lacey, H. (1999). Is Science Value Free? Values and Scientific Understanding. London & New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203983195

Longino, H. E. (1990). Science as Social Knowledge. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Longino H. E. (1996) Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Values in Science: Rethinking the Dichotomy. En L. H. Nelson, J. Nelson (Eds). Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science, pp. 39-58. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1742-2_3

Longino, H. E. (2002). The Fate of Knowledge. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.

Mattarollo, L. (2020). Valoración e investigación en el continuo de la experiencia. Desde el pragmatismo de John Dewey al debate sobre el ideal de ciencia libre de valores. Tesis de posgrado (Doctor en Filosofía). Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación. https://doi.org/10.35537/10915/91055

Naciones Unidas (1993). Declaración sobre la protección de todas las personas contra las desapariciones forzadas. URL: https://undocs.org/es/A/RES/47/133 Consulta: 25/06/2020.

Olivé, L. (2000). El bien, el mal y la razón. México DF: Paidós.

Penchaszadeh, V. B. (1992). Abduction of Children of Political Dissidents in Argentina and the Role of Human Genetics in Their Restitution. Journal of Public Health Policy, 13(3), 291-305. https://doi.org/10.2307/3342729

Penchaszadeh, V. B. (2015). Ethical, legal and social issues in restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and suppression of identity in Argentina. Journal of Community Genetics, 6(3), 207-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12687-015-0219-3

Reisch, G. A. (2009). Cómo la Guerra Fría transformó la filosofía de la ciencia: Hacia las heladas laderas de la lógica. Bernal: Universidad Nacional de Quilmes.

Rudner, R. (1953). The scientist qua scientist makes value judgments. Philosophy of Science, 20(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1086/287231

Rooney, P. (1992). On Values in Science: Is the Epistemic/Non-Epistemic Distinction Useful? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, 1, 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1086/psaprocbienmeetp.1992.1.192740

Steel, D., Whyte, K. P. (2012). Environmental Justice, Values, and Scientific Expertise. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 22(2), 163-182. https://doi.org/10.1353/ken.2012.0010

Wullf, G. (2008). Las Abuelas y la Genética. El aporte de la ciencia en la búsqueda de los chicos desaparecidos. Buenos Aires: Editorial Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22370/rhv2020iss16pp255-275

Copyright (c) 2021 Humanities Journal of Valparaíso

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.